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Cultivation of Paddy


Cultivation of rice in Natural farming method by Shri Surendranath Garu on 3rd Mar 2018 in CWF WhatsApp Group.

Let us familiarize few points with reference to rice cultivation.
Rice is a grass plant. It can survive in water. but it does not require a facility like drowning with water. It can be grown any where on earth where sunlight is available.The competition between main crop and weeds is for sunlight and the competition is not for nutrients from soil.

We shall see Rice crop cultivation from indigenous seeds by way of Natural farming (ZBNF)

Ploughing: 
Plough required depending on soil nature. Can add 200kg Ghana jeevamrut (GJA) per acre while ploughing.In dry lands or poor soils. up to 400 Kg GJA can be added if available. GJA is a good source for creating humus. It will work slowly during a period of four months.Alternatives are Dry cow dung. to cultivate Dhaincha ( Jeeluga in Telugu) and ploughing at the age of 40 days or to cultivate pulses ( Like pilli pesara) and plough at flowering stage.Compact soil may need ploughing, Purpose of ploughing is to mix soil to make it loose or porous, to facilitate aeration, to expose the inner soil to sunlight.

Selection of seed and seed treatment: 
Indigenous seeds will grow well in Natural farming. They are drought resistant, Pest resistant, Nimber of Tillers will be more. grows up to 7 feet height and Can be grown with minimal water.

Seeds must be treated with Beejaamrutam( BJA). This renders the seed free from mold and other microbial disease. Facilitates good germinating conditions. Do not add much lime it may retard germination. Just 50g for 30 L BJA.

Approx 500g to 1 Kg seeds to plant in 1 acre.

Just sprinkle BJA on rice seeds. mix well and allow to dry in shade for 2 hours. then soak in water for 24 hours.

Keep in jute bag to encourage sprouts for 12 hours. prepare a nursery in approx 100 Sq. yards area. allow to grow seedling up to 15 days.

Sowing:
Can sow the plantlet when the age is in between 15 to 22 days or when the height is about 5 inches.... Sow only one plant at a point. Distance between plants is 45 to 50 c.m. Rows is 45 to 50 c.m

While plucking from nursery bed there will be stress on plants. transplantation must be done without giving strain on roots. plantlet must be handled, like a baby, till sowing. do not make plantlets as bunch and throw from one hand to another hand.

As we are sowing only one plant at a point. extra care must be taken to while sowing. the nature of soil in nursery bed must be porous.

After transplantation, we need to maintain some plants in nursery for gap filling right. Within 7-10days if any plant die in main field.

In general most of farm shapes are not in like a square or rectangular. It is always good to sow to appear in these shapes. It facilitates easy to do weed control. It can be done by making marks on rope. Two persons will hold the rope. 2 persons will sow the plantlets. Length wise and breadth wise markings are fixed in a corner at right angle ( 90 degrees). This gives a appearance of squares like below


Deweeding:
Each plant will be at corners of a square. This facilitates easy control of weeding in first 40 days. manual weeder can be passed in between gaps once after 15 days, 30 and 40 days. and later on weeding will not be a problem. as after 40 days the height of desi rice seed plant will be about 3 feet . new weeds after 40 days will be like live mulching and need remove them.

Process of deweeding in both directions... because of perfect shape and gaps in between plants

Passing of cono weeder not only controls weeds ... it also facilitates well mixing of soil particles , cuts the horizontal growth of roots and facilitates vertical growth of roots.... As a result many tillers will come ... plant grows a height of 5 to 6 feet .. plant can withstand gale and cyclone even if they are at a height of 7 to 8 feet.

Method for easy passing of cono weeder in wet or sticky lands.

Fertilizing:
After 20 days of sowing first dose of Jeevamrutam can be given. 200 l per acre in dilution of 1 : 10 with water. or can be mixed with irrigated water. When ever giving JA on soil. also do foliar spray of JA in 1 : 15 dilution. write the dates in record. Or Display a board in the field. write the details like Seed name , Sowing date.

After 5 days of giving JA give a foliar spray of Gobaanam in 1 : 16 dilution ...

Continue giving JA (on soil and spray on leaves) and Gobaanam (On leaves) once in 15 days ... with 5 days interval in between these two

As the plants are at a good distance. All leaves will get enough sunlight and air. there is no competition between plants. Adverse effects of Pest on the plant growth will be minimal or under control.

If there is free flow of air between plants many pests can be prevented

continue application of JA on soil and on leaves till 3 weeks before harvesting

Apply sapta dhanya ankura kashayam before 20 days to harvesting time.... 
Tillers from a single plantlet

Snails on the plant. They are beneficial. No harm in less number. if excess can be picked up manually. some people eat them. there is demand and some place there is a ban on sale of snails.

Irrigation: 
Maintain minimum water, apply water just to wet the land.

Pruning:
Can cut the plant blades like this at the age of 40 days, this facilitates good growth also prevents or makes the plant resistant to pest attacks. The plant will grow up to height of 6 feet. Drop the blade as mulch. If practiced like this astraas not at all required. Other Astraas in Natural farming, beside Neemaastra , are Dasaparni kashayam, Agni aastra, Brahma astra. in general their use may not arise if plants are at a reasonable distance. Believe we have never prepared Dasaparni kashayam, Agni aastra or Brahmaastra in last 6 years.

Pesticides:
Keep neemastram ready. no need to prepare other astras. Observe leaves back side once in 3 days. apply neemastram as and when required.

Seed Saving:
Observe well grown bunches. tie a red ribbon to those plants. collect the seeds from those plants for next season.
Grown plants even 50 c.m distance may not be sufficient.

5 to 7 feet grown rice plants of indigenous seeds.

Yield:
Indigenous seeds gives food to humans (grains) and cattle (as dy grass) In first year one can expect a yield of 20 bags per acre with these seeds ( 20 bags x 76 Kg paddy) If cultivated in this method. We can expect aprox . 200 to 250 g paddy from a single plantlet.
net weight of paddy about 0.23 Kg or 230 g

Can expect a yield of 20 bags ( 20 x 76 Kg paddy) in first year ... 25 to 30 bags per acre in the first year itself , if the cultivator spends at least 3 hours per day in the field...... The yield will go up to 30 to 40 bags per acres after 3 years.
In case of Navara rice can expect 12 to 20 bags per acre ( bag = 76 Kg paddy)

Queries:
Is there any method to avoid weeds?
Manual de weeding, passing weeder, mulching are methods.

When do they start producing and how long it takes to ripen?
Ripening stage will be 30 days. crop period varies from seed to seed. 120 days to 180 days.

If rains are delayed, it delays transplanting also. in this case plant let age exceeds 30 days or above. What to do? If we transplant more than 40 or 50 days plantlets, any effect on yield.
Yes, transplantation of aged plants may give less yield. with age roots willn't spread.

Any material available on nutritional value and the names of indigenous rice variety
Not much data available. we have analysed 3 seeds for nutritional data.


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