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How plants will defend pests naturally?


Plants have a wide range of defence mechanisms to survive different stress factors including diseases.Resistance genes confer genetic protection. What is coming to be understood now is that susceptible species also stand a good chance of defending themselves through activating a series of metabolic pathways that allow a rapid expression of a broad set of defences upon infection by a pathogen.Injury triggers the release of volatile compounds like jasmonates and salicylates which bind to cell membrane-bound receptors to result in activation of a series of defence related enzymes. This results in the synthesis of compounds like terpenes, phenolics tannins, all that insects don’t like.

Some plants also release compounds which attract predatory insects (spiders, wasps, dragonflies, etc) which control pest populations rather effectively.Even roots release a number of metabolites in response to elicitation by jasmonates, salicylates and chitosan which show antimicrobial activity.Rhizosphere of some trees has been shown to suppress pathogenic fungal communities.

Plants have a wide range of various signalling components. Some are for their individual advantage (pollination, assault avoidance, sustenance sources, lure fungus to secure roots, and so on.); some are for gathering or species advantage (as in, "execute me so my healthy neighbour can survive").

These signs come in all structures, for example, hues and smell to pull in pollinators, through hormones and chemical discharge, and some basically by radiating particular frequencies that draw in particular invertebrate/creepy crawlies. This is an expansive region of plant science and differs extraordinarily between plants. The critical exchange is the manner in which to get the plant to send the healthy signals and not the awful.

Solid plants can concentrate their vitality on larger amount capacities like creating chemicals, oils, gums, and smell intensifies that are generally proposed to play out an element of fascination or protection. For instance, a few plants create oils that are harmful to their common predators. On the off chance that the plant is solid, the predator may assault yet be executed by the poison (Ex: neem tree), hence the plant can survive and imitate. 

In this event, that same plant is debilitated and is deficient with regards to the instruments to deliver the oil, when a similar predator assaults, it lives and can destroy the plant. 

All plants have these frameworks incorporated with them; generally, their species would be pulverized inside a couple of ages. In a sound developing condition, the periodic plant may do not have the nourishment to deliver its resistance mechanism and be expelled, however generally the plants have solid sustenance, and can normally oppose any assaults.

Growing crops naturally/organically enables the plants to develop and express their resistance pathway. Creating conditions within the agroecosystem to encourage biological diversity enables crops to be surrounded with balanced populations of predators (spiders, dragonflies, wasps, mantids, frogs, birds, shrews, etc) which help in disease management far more effectively than any spray.

Several fungal diseases can be controlled by mustard and related plants. After harvest or green manure, if the plants are mulched into the soil, microbes act upon the sulphur containing peptides in the mustard plants to release isothiocyanates which act like a mild fumigant and suppress fungal growth. This provides an excellent protection to crops against infestations like Rhizoctonia, Pythium, and Sclerotinia.

Phytopathogenic fungi like Trichoderma are effective in controlling Phytophthora which causes root rots of several host plants, whereas Bauveria bassiana and Verticilium leccani have been used effectively against larvae of beetles and mealy bugs.



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