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Cultivation of Cabbage

Climate:
Cabbage love cool and moist (15C-21C) conditions. Optimum temperature to give higher productivity is 15C-16C. It is frost and snow tolerant, can withstand upto -10C. August,September or October is best time to grow in India. Above 25C plant won't die but stops growth. 

Soil:
Cultivation of cabbage is done mainly on sandy to heavy soils rich in organic matter. Early harvests favor light soil while late yields flourish better on heavier soils because of maintenance of dampness. On substantial soils,plants develop all the more gradually and the keeping quality is progressed. A pH range of 6.0-6.5 is considered as optimum for growing cabbage. Plants growing in saline soils are prone to diseases.Grow cabbage in soil rich in organic matter that is well-drained. Cabbage grows best where the soil pH is between 6.5 and 7.5.

Seed:
120 grams of  seeds are required for one acre. In India, Cabbage is cultivated for the most part as Rabi amid winter (Sept.- Oct.), But around Nasik (Maharashtra) it is cultivated as kharif trim moreover.

Duration: 
Cabbage comes to gather in 80 to 180 days from seed and in 60 to 105 days from transplants relying on the selected variety.

Spacing: 
Early development – Row to Row : 45 cm, Plant to Plant : 30 cm
Late development– Row to Row : 60cm, Plant to Plant : 45 cm



Field Preparation: 
It will be better if the field is watered for 3 days before sowing in order to improve germination of seeds.Grow green manure before the crop. Traditional practice is mixing 8 tons of FYM or 5 tons of compost with 500 kg of Neem cake along with top soil. Prepare raised beds if land is susceptible for water logging else ridge and furrows.

Sowing Method: 
Use seed drill plough(Gorru) for direct sowing, for transplantation grow seedlings in nursery and transplant.


Irrigation:
Cabbage being a shallow rooted crop, majority of the roots are concentrated in the surface layer.To keep the top layer always moist, frequent but light irrigation's are given. Initial irrigation before sowing. Irrigation is required rarely as it is rain fed crop. If no rains irrigation is required before flowering. Maintain specific time everyday at least irrigating deep 20 cm soil gives best results. Give mulch for soil if climate is too hot outside. These plants don't like over irrigation. Over watering, stagnation leads several viral/fungal diseases. Cabbage can't tolerate water logging nor water stress.
http://www.ecosecretz.com/search/label/Irrigation?m=1


Intercrops:
Beans,dill,coriander,onions,beets,marigolds,mint,tomatoes. Avoid cabbage inter cropping in grapes.A examination was completed to decide the impact of various intercrops on cabbage growth, mineral substance and yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) under field conditions in 2000, 2001 and 2002. LER (Land Equivalent Ratio) and economic net income of different cropping systems based on cabbage as an index of inter cropping efficiency were also evaluated.

In the investigation, cabbage was utilized as a primary yield, and lettuce, leaf lettuce , radish, onion and snap bean were utilized as intercrops. Each of the intercrops was planted in the middle of cabbage pushes in isolated plots. Cabbage and all intercrops were likewise developed as sole yields. There was no huge impact of various intercropping frameworks on development qualities and yield of cabbage contrasted and sole cabbage trimming aside from radish as an intercrop, which influenced antagonistically the yield and some development attributes of cabbage.Net pay was expanded altogether when cabbage was intercropped with cos lettuce, bean, leaf lettuce or onion. The estimations of LER had all the earmarks of being more noteworthy than 1 under intercropping frameworks. Trimming frameworks did not altogether influence nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron substance of cabbage. The outcomes acquired in this examination called attention to that intercropping frameworks in light of cabbage may expand add up to yield, efficiency and benefit.

Harvest: 
After 70 to 90 days firm heads will appear. firm heads should be harvested periodically. Average yield, 10 - 20 tons ofheads can be harvested.


Pest control: 
  • Bacterial/viral infections occur due to water stagnation, over moist conditions and no proper circulation of air.
  • Four kg of Neem seeds are powdered and dissolved in 100 litres of water and filtered. Add 10 litres of cow urine and mix it with 50 gm of soapnut powder. Spraying this extract every 15 days will control many pests and diseases.
  • Install light traps one for every half acre from 6-10 pm to overcome moths laying eggs and remove traps before flowers start to appear. As a preventive measure one can install yellow sticky traps but if previous crop had severe infestation its better to invest in light traps
  • Spray diluted Neem oil or Tobacco decoction for Aphids & Mealybugs.




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