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Cultivation of Rose

About Author of this article:
Mr.Manjunath is Innovative farmer cultivating rose organically from Doddamanchi, Karnataka. He makes products like Rose herbal tea, Gulkhand, Rose Oil, Rose Water,Potpouri, Rose perfume, etc.


You can reach him on mail2me.manjunath@gmail.com, 8971678861


Introduction :
Arka Savi: It is a spray category of rose belonging to floribunda group. Flowers are Purple Pink in colour and are produced in bunches. ‘Arka Savi’ is identified for its floriferous nature with high yield. Potential yield of flowers expected is 30 tons/acre/year. In addition to high yield, it has added advantage of long shelf life of 5-6 days.

Source : https://www.iihr.res.in/rose-arka-savi

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF ROSES
•Rose belongs to family Rosaceae.
•Majority types of this species with minor difference belongs to genus Rosa.
•There are around 150 perceived and portrayed types of roses.
•The genus Rosa is divided into 4 sub genera namely- Eurosa, Platyrhodon,Hesperhodos, Hulthemia.




Floribunda:- (Hybrid tea x Poliantha)
•They consolidated the lovely types of the Hybrid Teas with the never-ending blooming propensity for the Polyanthas.
•Flowering in clusters with small size and open centre.
•Good for garden display.
•Important Desi Variety is ARKA SAVI

CLIMATE
•The temperature should be maintained between 10-42⁰ C.
•Savi can sustain hard climatic conditions as well where is sun loving open field variety.

SOIL:
•An perfect soil should be rich sandy and stable with approx 50cm deep ensuring optimum drainage and aeration of the roots.
•Roses don't endure water logging and high water table subsequently a perfect soil must have a steady water table at the dynamic root zone.
•Roses can also be grown in soil less media like rock wool, peat, cocopeat,
•perlite.
•Soil pH should be slightly acidic 6.2-6.8.

Land Preparation
•The soil should be dug to a depth of 60 cm. and incorporated with organic or inorganic additives to improve the soil structure.
•Soil sterilizing is an important technique to prevent the soil from soil borne diseases.
•Recommended for chemical poured lands earlier should do plantation of beans or navadanyas during flowering stage plough the same to increase microbial activities by the live mulch.

Manure and Fertilizers
•Roses are gross feeder.
•All necessary nutrients are spread on the beds and blended into the upper 30 cm of soil.
•After establishment of plant nutrition is applied through irrigation system.

CONCENTRATED REQUIRED FOR FERTIGATION ( These Manure and fertilizers covered in SAVI cultivation Whitepaper)


PLANTING
1.Ideal strategy for planting of rose two fold line framework or double row system.
2.Plant to plant distance -1 Mtr.
3.Row to row distance-6 Feet .
4.Planting time: Except Summer.


Plant growth regulators
Gibberellic Acid:- Gibberellic acid is found at a high concentration in the developing seed of a peach. Other plant sources incorporate onion bulbs, spinach and ferns. Overall, 136 distinctive normally occurring gibberellic acid compounds have been confined in plants, fungus and microorganisms. With Mulch we can achieve this
•Regulate the growth and flowering
•Increases the length of shoots
•Increases the number of nodes
•Prolonged the period of flowering and enhanced the yield.
•Waste Decomposer mixed solution caused dwarfing and improve flowering.

Irrigation
•Roses do not like water logging condition but need plenty of water for their growth and development.
•Frequency of irrigation depends on the water requirement of particular varieties.
•Ideal method-Drip irrigation system
•Another technique for irrigation –Sub surface irrigation, in which water is directly supplied at the root zone without any further loss.
•Regular soil moisture is very essential for rose.

Manual weed control is effective if done frequently.
Rice straw mulch is also effective.
Major weeds of rose :- Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus albums. Chinopodium alba,

Mulching
•It conserve soil moisture.
•Supply humus.
•Suppress weeds.
•It is done with paddy straw, dried leaves.
•Also promotes growth and flowering.
•It promotes physical properties of the soil.

Pest Management
•Alphids : Remove aphids by hand by spraying water or knocking them into a bucket of soapy water. Control with natural or organic sprays like Wastedecomposer with Soapnuts or shikai , neem oil, or essential oils. Utilize regular predators like ladybugs, green lacewings, and birds.
•Thrips : Foliar application of bio pesticides prepared with herbal plant extract will mange the thrips and other insect in natural farming. This spray at initial stage is more effective than at serious stage .
•Our regular Foliar management will address thrips . and Custard apple seeds oil sprays will downgrade any pest issues.
•Mites : Foliar application of bio pesticides prepared with herbal plant extract will mange the thrips and other insect in natural farming. This spray at initial stage is more effective than at serious stage .
•Our regular Foliar management will address thrips . and Dasaparni ARK which is prepared by WDC is recommended.
•White Fly: eco friendly pesticides prepared with herbal plant extract will mange the thrips and other insect in organic farming. This spray at initial stage is more effective than at serious stage .
•Our regular Foliar management will address thrips . and Dasaparni ARK which is prepared by WDC is recommended.

Disease management
Leaf spot : Black Spot of Rose. Diplocarpon rosae fugus is the primary cause of black spot. It is one of the most well-known infections discovered wherever roses are planted. The ailment doesn't kill the plant immediately, but over time, the loss of leaves can weaken the plant making it increasingly vulnerable to different other stresses and winter damage. As the root cause is fungus we can manage the fungus as we are using regular intervals WDC , Jeevamruth and additional to this sour butter milk can be applied .

Powdery mildew:Rose powdery mildew is a disease of roses caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae. It forms what looks like a white powder over the surface area of the rose leaves and may also spread to the stems and new rose buds.As the root cause is fungus we can manage the fungus as we are using regular intervals WDC , Jeevamruth and additional to this sour butter milk.
Downey mildew:On roses, downy mildew occurs on all above-ground plant parts, blighting the leaves and canes.

There may be confusion between mildew and nutrient deficiency or spray injury. The leaves which are infected turn to pale yellow and drop from the plant. A downy mildew contamination may leave the plant almost without foliage. Foliar application can control Downey mildew too.
Botrytis blight : Botrytis Blight of Roses. This is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, creating devastating losses for farmers. Fungus botrytis cinerea is the primary cause of the disease also called as gray mold. As the root cause is fungus we can manage the fungus as we are using regular intervals WDC , Jeevamruth and additional to this sour butter milk.
Crown gall : Use of disease - free planting material and destruction of infected material .
Crown Gall of Rose. Crown Gall disease caused by a soil borne bacteria, can seriously harm rose plants. Galls start as little swellings, normally at ground level, that gradually increment in size. Crown gall makes rose plant to become stunted and very often die.

Die-back :copper fungicides to cut ends immediately after pruning. Immediately have to place cow dung for better protection and avoid dry back where as since the ages we are following this practices after pruning placing cowdung and its works well too. Rose dieback is a condition normally influencing rose plants where there is browning or blackening of the tip of the rose stem which then travels down toward the graft and make the whole plant to die. Either be a Branch die back or the main stem dieback will happen towards the graft.
Blind shoots:
× No flower bud initiation .
× Shoots don't starts of pistils and stamens early stage.
Causes :
× Low temperature.
× Boron deficiency.

Harvesting and yield:
Harvesting of flowers should be done either in the morning or evening hours. Stage of harvest varies with the variety and distance to the market. Loose flowers are harvested at the initiation of flower opening. Arka Savi - 30 tonnes per acre per year

IMPORTANT ROSE IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS:
•Germany is the highest importer followed by USA,The Netherlands,France, Switzerland and U.K
•The main exporter is the Netherland followed by Columbia Ecuador, Kenya, Israel and Zimbabwe.
•In India,the major rose flower cultivating states are
•Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & West bengal .

Uses and importance:
•Roses are best known as ornamental plants
•Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging
•Roses are a well known harvest for both domestic and commercial cut flowers.
•Rose scents are produced using attar of roses or rose oil.
•Rose water, made as a result of rose oil creation.
•Rose hips are occasionally made into jam,jelly,and marmalade.
•Roses are also used in ayurvedic and folk fare medicine.

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